Category: Spotlights


He’s made quirky independent comedies and drama films in his home country for years. As an actor, writer, director, and comedian, he’s helped spearhead a close-knit group of like-minded creatives. He wrote the original script for Disney’s animated Polynesian blockbuster Moana last year. And now he’s taking on the Marvel Universe.

But truth be told, Taika Waititi probably wouldn’t be recognized on the street in places like New York or Los Angeles.


The 41-year-old Waititi has dominated the cinema scene in his native New Zealand for over a decade. In 2003, he came out of nowhere and got a Best Short Film nomination at the Oscars for Two Cars, One Night. He didn’t win, but he drew plenty of laughs when he pretended to fall asleep during the ceremony before they got to his category.

Waititi has been a darling at the Sundance Film Festival for many years – following his initial short film success, he wrote, directed, and co-starred in Eagle vs. Shark, an offbeat romantic comedy starring his good friend and frequent collaborator, Jemaine Clement. The film was nominated for the Grand Jury Prize at Sundance in 2007. Three years later, Waititi wrote and directed the coming-of-age story Boy, which tells the story of a young Māori kid learning the truth about his long-lost ex-convict father (played by Waititi). At the time, the film was the highest-grossing domestic movie ever at the New Zealand box office.

In 2014, Waititi and Clement tag-teamed the director’s chair for vampire comedy What We Do in the Shadows, which also wowed audiences at Sundance despite being made on a NZ$1.7 million budget raised entirely on Kickstarter. Last year, Waititi’s kid-friendly caper film Hunt for the Wilderpeople became the little Kiwi film that could, grossing over $12 million in its home country and $23 million worldwide, while also receiving unanimous acclaim (97% positive on Rotten Tomatoes). Also a smash hit in nearby Australia, Hunt for the Wilderpeople became the highest-grossing Kiwi movie ever, ahead of Boy – meaning that Waititi dethroned himself as New Zealand’s box office king.  “It’s the happiest and saddest day of my career,” Waititi quipped when he was told the news.


Born in the small coastal village of Raukokore in the North Island of New Zealand, Waititi is entirely Maori on his father’s side, while his mother is of Russian Jewish descent. He attended school at Onslow College before moving on to the Victoria University of Wellington, where he met Clement while studying film and drama.

Waititi and Clement formed the comedy duo The Humourbeasts, touring the nation and winning the Billy T Award – New Zealand’s highest comedy honor – in 1999. Meanwhile, Waititi also earned a couple of bit parts in indie films, most notably an award-winning turn in the student drama Scarfies, which was filmed in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1999. Eventually, he decided to give directing a shot, starting with short comedy films for New Zealand’s 48-hour film festival. From that came Two Cars, One Night and immediate domestic success.

Earlier in 2017, Waititi was named the recipient of the New Zealander of the Year Award. “There are a lot of nominations for things I never won and this is something I actually did win – it feels like I’ve followed through on this one,” the director says, while expressing regret that he couldn’t attend the ceremony in person.


“If someone asked, ‘What are your films like?’, the best I can come up with is that they’re, like, a fine balance between comedy and drama. And they deal mainly with the clumsiness of humanity,” states Waititi, who lists his favorite directors as Hal Ashby and George Miller.

Now, Waititi will be directing the upcoming Thor: Ragnarok, the third entry in the Marvel Universe starring the comic book character portrayed by Chris Hemsworth. However, Waititi was given a shocking amount of artistic freedom and declared almost immediately that the film would be set outside the Marvel Universe and be a stand-alone movie. Primarily shot in Australia, Thor: Ragnarok will be premiering on November 3rd.


Waititi’s films all have vulnerability mixed with offbeat Kiwi humor, which will certainly be a unique addition to a big-budget superhero film. Conversely, Marvel has never had someone like Waititi direct a film of theirs. Noted critic Sarah Marrs said specifically that she was only as excited as she was for Thor: Ragnarok because Waititi was directing it, and that Marvel was giving him a long leash in order to do so.

“Having had pretty much four successful films at home, I know there’s an audience for my work,” Waititi explains. “A lot of people are trying to get out of their home country and think ‘making it’ is if you’re able to work in another. For me, I’d be quite content to keep doing my own little films down there for the rest of my filmmaking career.”

Similarly, Waititi remains low-key about being the proverbial Hollywood outsider. “I’ve always felt like I wanted to make a Marvel film. I just want to make sure I’m not making an episode.”

Now that Thor: Ragnarok is in the can and preparing for its release, Waititi is turning his attention elsewhere. He’s working on a werewolf-themed spinoff of What We Do in the Shadows and recently landed a $20 million Netflix deal to direct Bubbles, a film about the life of Michael Jackson as seen through the eyes of his pet chimpanzee.

“From film to film, it’s a new thing,” Waititi says. “And that, to me, is more inspiring than making same type of movie every time.”

HISTORY SPOTLIGHT: Lachlan Macquarie


Lachlan Macquarie was born on Ulva Island, Scotland, in 1762, to a well-regarded family of Scottish clan chieftains. Macquarie left his home island at the age of 14 and eventually found his way into the British Army.

In April 1777, the young Macquarie was deployed to North America during the American Revolutionary War and ended up stationed in modern-day Nova Scotia as an ensign. But that was only the beginning of Macquarie’s military excursions, as he saw many different stations over the next decade — including the American colonies, Jamaica, India, and Egypt. During this time, he became known as a very successful commander, rapidly climbing the ladder from Lieutenant to Captain to Major.

In between his service stints overseas, Macquarie also spent some time in London as an assistant adjutant general to the honorable Lord Harrington. After returning to India for two years, Macquarie ended up in London again in 1807, this time commanding the 73rd Foot Regiment.

In April 1809, Macquarie received word that he was to become the Governor of New South Wales. At the time, it must have seemed like a demotion, as the New South Wales colony was widely regarded as a poverty-stricken penal settlement on the eastern coast of Australia.

With widespread political corruption, a group of rebellious, undisciplined soldiers, and conflicts with local Aboriginal groups, New South Wales was hardly considered a dream destination. Previously, the British had only wanted naval officers to govern the place due to its remoteness, but had experienced very little success. But nonetheless, Macquarie was viewed as the right man to bring law and order to the fledgling New South Wales colony.

Macquarie arrived in the colony by December 1809, bringing along a good-sized group of his own men; he officially became Governor on January 1, 1810.

His first order of business was to restore order among the populace after the so-called “Rum Rebellion” of 1808. Macquarie also had to navigate the testy relationship between free settlers (AKA “exclusives”) and reformed convicts who had finished their sentences and/or been granted pardons (known as the emancipists). Severe droughts occurred in consecutive years, and Macquarie also had his hands full while he attempted to overhaul the military corps and the justice system. The first few years in the colony were grim, indeed.

Macquarie’s plan for the courts clashed with Jeffrey Bent, the Chief Judge of the new Supreme Court. Bent had alliances with the military and the exclusive settlers, and some accused Macquarie of trying to rebel against English common law by issuing ordinances that were viewed as inconsistent with the Crown’s plans for New South Wales. Macquarie’s attempts to allow emancipist attorneys into the court were particularly frowned upon.

It became clear that Macquarie’s plans for New South Wales were facing an uphill battle. His greater vision was to have the colony as a egalitarian settlement — allowing ex-convicts to coexist peacefully with civilian settlers and military officers. While that may seem perfectly logical and innocuous today, Macquarie was largely viewed as a radical at the time.

In 1816, Macquarie had been subject to repeated harassment and decided to proclaim a new law against trespassing, having three offenders — all of them free settlers — flogged in order to send a message. While an extreme example, this was one incident that Macquarie’s political opponents used against him. Eventually, Macquarie was censored by Lord Bathurst, the man who was in charge of colonial affairs in New South Wales. The British set up a committee in order to investigate Macquarie, as well as detail further plans for the penal colony.

Surprisingly, the committee was mostly OK with Macquarie’s policies and vision, but they disapproved of his liberal use of pardons and tickets of leave. They ended up supporting Macquarie in his goal to help New South Wales become a prosperous colony for ex-convicts who desired to start anew. However, many others still wanted Macquarie gone, so he eventually resigned.

Shortly thereafter, the Napoleonic Wars ended, and many free settlers decided to move to Australia, as Britain was sinking into a post-war economic depression. By the time Macquarie had resigned and returned to London in 1822, nearly 40,000 settlers lived in New South Wales.

Macquarie is also credited with being the first governor to issue official currency in Australia, in 1813, and helped found the Bank of New South Wales four years later. He helped bring in architects and engineers to supervise the building of many sites, most of which are still standing in Sydney today. Macquarie also encouraged further exploration of the Australian continent and helped build some structures in Tasmania, another penal colony, when he visited there. Macquarie University in Sydney, one of Australia’s most prestigious schools, is named for the governor.

To this day, Australians universally regard Macquarie as an extremely influential and important figure. The idea of “giving everyone a fair go” is a phrase that continues to be popular among Aussies to this day, echoing Macquarie’s philosophy that regardless of background, religion, educational level, or socioeconomic status, one can attempt to succeed and make a good life.

Macquarie passed away in London at the age of 62 while still awaiting charges for his alleged crimes. He was buried at a remote mausoleum in Scotland alongside his wife and two children — with the words “the Father of Australia” written on his epitaph.




Doug Nicholls was born on December 9, 1906, at Cummeragunja Reserve, a small Aboriginal Australian community in rural New South Wales. The youngest of five children, Nicholls grew up surrounded by cattle and sheep stations and attended school at the local church mission.

By the age of 13, Nicholls was working for his uncle as a hand on a local farm, where he was known for his charming, boyish personality and strong work ethic. The young Nicholls showed plenty of athleticism, catching on with the Tongala Blues, a local Australian rules football club across the Murray River in country Victoria.

Eventually, Nicholls got good enough at footy in order to try out for both Carlton and North Melbourne – two teams in the Victorian Football League (VFL) – in 1927 at the age of 21. While Nicholls briefly played for Carlton’s reserves squad, his lack of height (5’2″) worked against him and he eventually chose to leave the club in favor of the Northcote Dragons Football Club, a team that competed in the Victorian Football Association (VFA).

Nicholls was able to work his way into the Dragons’ starting lineup by the 1929 season, and was eventually selected by Fitzroy, a well-established VFL club, in 1932. Known for his exceptional speed and ability to make smart decisions with the footy, Nicholls soon became a crowd favorite, although he was also subject to locker room taunts due to his ethnicity. It wasn’t until teammate Haydn Bunton befriended Nicholls that the young Aborigine felt like he belonged. In 1935, Nicholls became the first indigenous player to play for the Victorian state team.


Nicholls also used his athletic talents to help fellow Aborigines, as well as raise funds by organizing footy matches to support Australian troops during WWII. He was also named the inaugural chairman of the National Aboriginal Sports Foundation. Following the death of his mother, Nicholls began to take an interest in the ministry, becoming a Church of Christ member after getting baptized in 1935.

While Nicholls wanted to serve in WWII, he was eventually released from his duties in order to help the Fitzroy community, including many Aborigines who suffered from alcoholism. In addition to his Christian ministry work, Nicholls became a social worker and was a voice against the alcoholism and gambling problems that he felt were plaguing his community. He also helped set up hostels for abandoned children, built vacation homes for poor families, and was also a field officer for the Aboriginal Advancement League. Many people admired Nicholls’s enthusiasm and charisma, and he eventually became the minister of the first Aboriginal Church of Christ in the country.

In 1953, Nicholls received a great honor when he was recommended to be a part of the Australian contingency that attended Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation. This never materialized, but the recommendation specifically highlighted the positive community activism that Nicholls had been doing (he did eventually help welcome the Queen when she toured Australia in 1970).


Among other career highlights, Nicholls was chosen as a member of the Father’s Day Council of Australia due to his work with youth, met Pope Paul VI at the Ecumenical Conference held in Melbourne in 1968, and ultimately was the first Aboriginal Australian to be knighted, in 1972. Nicholls was also the first Aboriginal to hold high office, when he was elected Governor of South Australia in 1976. However, he served only five months in office before resigning due to poor health.

Nicholls passed away on June 4, 1988, at his home in Mooroopna, Victoria. He was 81 years old and survived by his wife of 39 years, Gladys, in addition to three kids and three step-kids.

A state funeral was widely attended, and a life-size statue of Nicholls was dedicated in 2006 at Parliament Gardens in Melbourne. In addition, Nicholls remains widely influential in sport – the Australian Football League recognizes his achievements every year with the annual Sir Doug Nicholls Indigenous Round, which celebrates the Aboriginal impact on the game of Aussie rules.

Digital StillCamera


Hugh Laurie

He’s one of the most accomplished television actors of the past decade, appearing in numerous award-winning shows and programs on both sides of the Atlantic, but it’s easy to forget that Hugh Laurie took the long road to become an international star.

After all, he basically got into acting by accident.

The youngest of four children, Laurie was born on June 11, 1959, and grew up in Oxford, England. His parents, Dr. William George “Ran” Laurie and Patricia Laidlaw Laurie, were of Scottish descent. The elder Laurie (1915-1998) was a well-regarded general practitioner and a former rowing champion who represented England at the 1948 Summer Olympics.

Hugh, meanwhile, attended the Dragon School in Oxford during his pre-teen years; he admits today that he was a horrible student who preferred smoking cigarettes and cheating on French vocabulary tests. Laurie then went on to the world-renowned Eton College, where he competed in rowing and also played percussion in the school orchestra. Upon graduation, he moved on to his father’s alma mater, Selwyn College, Cambridge.

Like his dad, Laurie was a gifted rower and therefore felt the pressure to live up to his family name. He studied archaeology and social anthropology while at Selwyn, but was eventually forced to give up rowing after contracting a case of mono.


Shortly thereafter, Laurie fell into the Cambridge Footlights. Founded in 1883, the Footlights are the oldest comedy club at the university and have produced many hilarious talents, including Monty Python members John Cleese, Graham Chapman, and Eric Idle, as well as Jonathan Lynn, creator of Yes, Minister.

While training with the Footlights, Laurie became friends with his future long-time comedy partner, Stephen Fry, and got romantically involved with future Oscar winner Emma Thompson; they remain good friends to this day. Laurie and Thompson were president and vice president of the Footlights, respectively, during their final year at Cambridge (1980-81).

Upon leaving Cambridge, Laurie, along with Fry, found success on a variety of BBC programs, including Blackadder. Co-created by fellow Cambridge alum Ben Elton, Blackadder is a collection of satirical period-piece sitcoms featuring numerous recurring characters, and it gave Fry and Laurie plenty of chances to show off their skills.


Shortly thereafter, the duo got their own sketch comedy show, A Bit of Fry and Laurie, which ran from 1989 to 1995. Widely considered a BBC cult classic, Fry and Laurie’s show helped them reach new heights in the UK, later leading to their hit show Jeeves and Wooster, an adaptation of the famous P.G. Wodehouse stories. Laurie often got chances to show off his musical prowess on TV, as he is a gifted pianist and guitarist who also plays the drums and the saxophone.

However, on the other side of the pond, Laurie was practically an unknown – which made it all the more surprising that he was tabbed for the title role in the medical procedural drama House.

Nearly all of us have seen at least one episode of House, so it’s very difficult to look at the show with fresh eyes, as audiences did back in 2004. Laurie played Dr. Greg House with such precision and perfection from the get-go, enthralling audiences worldwide. In fact, Laurie’s American accent was so convincing during his audition tape that executive producer Bryan Singer had no idea that Laurie wasn’t American until they met in person.

In addition to becoming one of the highest-paid actors on TV, Laurie’s skills finally caught on with an American audience, who only vaguely remembered him from his brief turns in 102 Dalmatians and Stuart Little. The character of Dr. House was so mean-spirited and complex, and critics were consistently impressed with Laurie’s chops. The actor took home two SAG Awards and two Golden Globes for his portrayal of House. And in 2011, Laurie received a Guinness World Record for being the most watched actor on television.


Laurie admitted that the reason he took the role of Dr. House was because of his own father’s profession, once claiming that he felt slightly guilty for earning far more money than his dad ever did by playing a “fake doctor” on TV.

“I had a long-term reverence for medicine because I hero-worshipped my father, a former doctor, and because I admire doctors. I admire study, empiricism, and rational thought,” Laurie remarked.

However, he clarified that his late father would be “appalled” by the character of Dr. House.

“My father was an endlessly polite, generous and soft-spoken man. He was no pushover, but he would never hurt, shock or outrage people just for the hell of it. At the same time, I hope he would be entertained and see that science and logic are like a religion to House. He’d approve of that.”

Since the mammoth success of House, Laurie has pursued his musical career more consistently, recording two full-length blues albums and touring worldwide. He’s also popped up in other acclaimed shows, including a recent, well-received stint on HBO’s Veep, and took home another Golden Globe just a few weeks ago for his appearance on the BBC’s The Night Manager.

Laurie is currently starring on the Hulu original series Chance, playing a pessimistic neuropsychiatrist who is drawn into the dark underbelly of San Francisco while attempting to help an emotionally disturbed patient who suffers from an abusive husband. The intense, suspenseful show is based upon the novel by Kem Nunn – who also co-produces the show – and co-stars Lisa Gay Hamilton and Ethan Suplee.

Laurie remains best friends with Fry, who was best man at his wedding and godfather to his kids. He and Thompson are also close, with Laurie co-starring in Thompson’s universally-praised adaptation of Sense and Sensibility in 1995. Laurie returned the favor in 2001, having his daughter star in the film Wit, in which she played a younger version of Thompson’s character.

In his free time, Laurie loves playing music of all kinds and is a well-known supporter of the Fulham Football Club. He is also a motorcycle enthusiast, having incorporated these elements into the character of House, and has published two crime novels. In addition to his recreational hobbies, Laurie supports several charities and is a notable patron of Save the Children (his sister, Susan, is on the Board of Trustees).

Laurie currently resides in London with his wife of 27 years, Jo; they have three grown children – Charles (age 28), William (age 26), and Rebecca (age 23).




If you’ve lived in New Mexico for any amount of time, you have to have heard of Billy the Kid (1859-1881). As someone who spent the better part of four years in the Land of Enchantment, it’s hard to argue with that.

Any Wild West historian worth his/her salt can tell you all about the legendary outlaw simply known as Billy the Kid. And that’s exactly what he was – a legend. To that end, there have been dozens of poems, documentaries, and live-action movies about Billy, most notably the 1973 Sam Peckinpah film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, starring Kris Kristofferson as Billy and James Coburn as Pat Garrett.

Still, many people, even experts in the field, know very little about Billy other than a few facts and information handed down by oral tradition and folklore. In fact, the above photo is the only surviving depiction of the man.

Some people – both Western historians and Billy’s own contemporaries – are divided over who he actually was. In some circles, he’s known as a vicious killer and thief who was part of a growing violent epidemic in post-Civil War New Mexico. Others believe that Billy was simply a punk kid who fell in with the wrong crowd and never killed anyone for the fun of it. And still others viewed Billy as a cunning, suave marksman – noted for being a charmer, a talented dancer, and a folk hero. In modern terms, say a combination of James Bond, Batman, and Clint Eastwood.

So what DO we know about the mysterious Billy the Kid? Let’s find out.

The first thing that you need to know about Billy the Kid is that his name wasn’t Billy. He was born September 17, 1859 in New York City and his given name was Henry McCarty. He was raised Catholic by his Irish-American mother Catherine, and he had a younger brother, Joseph (born 1863).

Very little is known about Billy’s father, other than the fact that he died when Billy was very young. Shortly thereafter, Ms. McCarty and her boys moved to Indiana, where she met and fell in love with a man named Henry Antrim. The family moved around to several places before settling in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in 1873. Ms. McCarty married Antrim shortly thereafter, and then moved the family again, this time a few hundred miles south to Silver City, New Mexico.

Unfortunately, Billy’s mother passed away a year later from tuberculosis. Billy, by now age 15, started working for a lady named Sarah Brown in Silver City. Brown took him in after his mother’s death, while Billy’s brother remained with Antrim.

In 1875, Billy and a friend robbed a local laundromat, stealing clothes as well as two pistols. Billy was charged with theft and put in jail, but escaped two days later and fled to his stepfather’s house. Soon after that, Billy fled again to the Arizona Territory, where he worked on a ranch and developed a gambling habit. The following year, a respected rancher named Henry Hooker took Billy in and gave him consistent work as a cattle wrangler.

Around this time, Billy befriended a man named John Mackie, an ex-Army cavalryman who had become a small-time horse thief following his discharge. The two men began stealing horses from soldiers at nearby Camp Grant.

During one of these incidents, things turned violent. On August 17, 1877, Billy got into a verbal altercation with Francis Cahill, a blacksmith who had become increasingly suspicious of Billy. During a poker game, Cahill attacked Billy, and after a brief struggle, Billy shot Cahill, who died the next day. Billy was taken into custody by Camp Grant authorities, but managed to escape again.

Billy stole a horse and attempted to return to New Mexico, but was attacked by Apaches on the way back, who robbed him and stole his horse. A tired and dehydrated Billy managed to walk several miles through the desert to the home of John Jones, a gang member who lived in Pecos Valley, New Mexico. Billy stayed at the Jones home and recuperated for awhile before catching on with a band of cattle rustlers. By this time, Billy began using the alias “William H. Bonney” to avoid catching unnecessary attention from newspapers and authorities in his adopted hometown of Silver City.

Billy eventually went back to honest work as a ranch-hand in Lincoln County, New Mexico, working for an Englishman named John Tunstall. Tunstall and his friend, a lawyer named Alexander McSween, were locked in a feud with three prominent businessmen: John Riley, James Dolan, and Lawrence Murphy. This trio were intimately involved in local politics and were suspected of shady dealings with various authority figures in Lincoln County.

In early 1878, on behalf of Dolan, county sheriff William Brady attempted to claim $40,000 of Tunstall’s property in order to repay a much smaller debt owed by McSween. Tunstall, sensing danger, warned his ranch-hands (including Billy) to guard the property and prevent the sheriff’s men from stealing any horses or cattle.

On February 18th, Sheriff Brady assembled a posse and attempted to force Tunstall off his land. In the process, Tunstall was shot and killed, starting what eventually became known as the Lincoln County War.

Two days later, Billy and a couple of his associates went to the local justice of the peace, John Wilson, and obtained murder warrants for Sheriff Brady. While attempting to do so, Billy and his friend, Dick Brewer, were ambushed by the sheriff’s posse and imprisoned. This caught the attention of Deputy U.S. Marshal Rob Widenmann, who freed Billy and Brewer on February 23rd and, in turn, locked up Sheriff Brady’s men.

After his release, Billy joined the Lincoln County Regulators and attempted to avenge Tunstall’s murder. On March 9th, two of Tunstall’s alleged killers, Bill Morton and Frank Baker, were shot dead. A month later, during an ambush at nearby Blazer’s Mill, Brewer and Sheriff Brady were also killed. A warrant was then issued for the arrest of numerous parties, including Billy.

By now, McSween was the leader of the Regulators, who were nearly 60 strong. They occupied the town of Lincoln on the night of July 14th, surrounding the town for several days. The new sheriff, George Peppin, dispatched several sharpshooters to kill the Regulators at the local saloon, but it backfired when Charles Crawford, one of the snipers, was shot by a Regulator named Fernando Herrera.

A furious Sheriff Peppin requested help from Colonel Nathan Dudley of nearby Fort Stanton, but Dudley refused. On July 19th, McSween and the Regulators were attacked at their lodge by Deputy Sheriff Jack Long, who burned the house down. As Billy and the Regulators retreated, McSween was shot and killed by Robert Beckwith, who was then shot by Billy.

Billy and three surviving Regulators regrouped outside of town on the Mescalero Apache Indian Agency. However, when a local bookkeeper was murdered on August 5th by a Lincoln County Constable, the Regulators were framed for the crime.


On October 5th, U.S. Marshal John Sherman met with the new governor of the New Mexico Territory, Lew Wallace. A Union officer during the Civil War, Wallace was intent on restoring law and order to the dangerous New Mexico landscape. In their meeting, Sherman informed Wallace of a number of pending arrest warrants, including for a one “Billy the Kid.” Due to widespread political corruption in Lincoln County, Sherman had been unable to indict the people involved in the conflict.

In November, Governor Wallace issued amnesty to anyone involved in the Lincoln County War following Tunstall’s murder earlier that year. However, the pardon did not apply to anyone who was under indictment for a crime, so Billy was still a wanted man.

On February 18, 1879, Billy and a friend of his were in the wrong place at the wrong time. A local attorney, Huston Chapman, was murdered and his corpse set on fire while Billy and his friend were forced to watch. Later, Billy wrote a letter to Governor Wallace, offering information on Chapman’s murder in exchange for amnesty. Billy met with Wallace in person on March 15th, with Wallace offering full amnesty to Billy if he testified before a grand jury. Soon after, Billy turned himself in to Sheriff George Kimball.

As agreed, Billy provided information about the Chapman murder, but as the weeks passed, Billy began to question Wallace’s motivations. Believing that the Governor had double-crossed him, Billy escaped the jail on June 17th and decided to lie low for several months.

In January 1880, Billy shot and killed a man named Joe Grant (allegedly in self-defense) at a saloon in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. By now, Billy had joined a new posse and they were still causing trouble in the area, causing headaches for the new sheriff, Pat Garrett.

Garrett had been given a bounty on Billy’s head from Governor Wallace himself. Two days before Christmas 1880, Garrett captured Billy and his posse and took them to stand trial in Santa Fe. On the way there, the group was mobbed by rowdy locals attempting to kill Billy and his men. After arriving in Santa Fe, Billy was interviewed in the jailhouse by a reporter from the Las Vegas Gazette. The reporter took note of Billy’s relaxed demeanor, to which Billy replied that he didn’t believe in being pessimistic and that he would have the last laugh.

While in jail, Billy wrote Governor Wallace again, asking for clemency, but to no avail. In April 1881, Billy was transported to stand trail in Mesilla, New Mexico. After two days of testimonies, Billy was found guilty of murdering Sheriff Brady – the only conviction of any combatant in the Lincoln County War. On April 13th, Billy was sentenced to hang. He was moved once again, this time back to Lincoln.

On the night of April 28th, Sheriff Garrett was out of town. Deputy Bob Olinger and his colleagues were out at dinner, leaving a lone deputy, James Bell, to watch Billy.

Billy requested to use the outhouse, and Bell agreed. Somehow, on the way back to the jail, Billy freed himself from his handcuffs and knocked Bell over, before grabbing his revolver and shooting him in the back as he fled. Billy’s legs were still shackled, but amazingly, he was able to hobble into Garrett’s upstairs office and arm himself with a shotgun. Olinger, who had heard gunshots from across the street, approached. Billy called out, “Look up, old boy, and see what you get,” before shooting Olinger in the head. Billy then freed himself from his leg irons, stole a horse, and fled town.


Three months later, Governor Wallace placed a new bounty for Billy’s arrest or death. After hearing rumors that Billy was in Fort Sumner again, Garrett and two deputies left on July 14th to question Pete Maxwell, a friend of Billy’s and the son of a prominent landowner. Late at night, Garrett was questioning Maxwell when Billy unexpectedly entered the room. Due to the poor lighting, Billy did not recognize Garrett and called out, “Who is it?” Garrett, recognizing Billy’s voice, shot him in the chest twice, killing him.

Garrett was eventually given the bounty by Governor Wallace, but rumors began circulating that Garrett had ambushed Billy and killed him in cold blood. Feeling a need to set the record straight, Garrett told his side of the story in his book The Authentic Life of Billy the Kid, published in April 1882. It remains one of the few definitive chronicles of Billy’s life.


I recently had an awesome opportunity to catch a performance from Emeralde, a band fronted by two friends of mine. I saw Emeralde at Bogie’s Restaurant in Agoura Hills (roughly 45 minutes west of where I live). The band, fronted by pianist/composer Mark Gasbarro and vocalist/lyricist Margie Russomanno, features a versatile mix of contemporary pop, blues, and funk, with a large backing group.

Emeralde was founded in 2014 by Gasbarro and Russomanno, who had collaborated on numerous prior projects.

Gasbarro, a native of Pittsburgh, is an accomplished pianist, composer, and orchestrator, having worked on numerous award-winning films, including several from Pixar (you can find him on IMDB).

Meanwhile, Russomanno has released five solo albums in both pop and contemporary Christian styles; she is also a talented artist/graphic designer.

Emeralde features a wide variety of songs in their catalogue, from slower, down-tempo ballads to upbeat, funk-infused pop jams. I’ve always had a soft spot for modern pop with a retro feel to it, and if you also like that, you’ll probably enjoy Emeralde as well. They have CDs available on both iTunes and their website (, including their most recent full-length album, Wind and Shadows. As mentioned previously, Russomanno has also had a noted solo career, which includes the albums Sticks & Stones and All I Need (both of which are also on iTunes).

Both Gasbarro and Russomanno are active in the music ministry at the New Life Church of the Nazarene, located in the San Fernando Valley. You can find them at their respective websites ( and In addition to music, Russomanno has her featured paintings and graphic design projects featured on the site. When not working on composition projects for film, Gasbarro also keeps busy as an adjunct professor of composition at Azusa Pacific University.



When Mitch Wishnowsky was growing up, he had never seen or held an American football. Born and raised in Gosnells, a southeastern suburb of Perth, Australia, Wishnowsky was no different than any other kid in his neighborhood: he wanted to play Australian rules football.

In Australia, there are four different codes of football – soccer, rugby league, rugby union, and Australian rules football – and the most popular one in Perth is Aussie rules, or “footy.” Wishnowsky played a lot of footy as a kid, and showed promise, but never really saw himself playing at the professional level.

At the age of 17, Wishnowsky left high school a year early in order to start work; he had been offered an apprenticeship as a glass installation specialist. Several of his friends began showing him NFL games and explaining how American football was played. On the weekend, Wishnowsky and his friends would occasionally play pickup games of American football at their local park, but their style of play was very rudimentary. They only ran a few plays and just wanted to have a good time.

Wishnowsky still played Aussie rules, too, ending up on the reserves list at the Perth Demons, a local semi-pro team in the West Australian Football League. Still, he was never quite able to draw enough attention from AFL scouts.

After a couple of years, Wishnowsky eventually grew tired of his job and began to consider exploring other professional and educational opportunities. Eventually, he caught wind about ProKick Australia, a training academy for aspiring punters run by former Aussie rules footballer/NFL punter Nathan Chapman.

Chapman’s program is well-regarded around Australia; they select numerous Aussie kids – mostly from footy backgrounds – and help them to transition into American-style punters. To date, Chapman estimates that over 60 ProKick alums have been placed at various colleges in the US. Wishnowsky contacted Chapman and was instantly sold on the idea. He committed to the program and started the long, grueling process of becoming a college football punter.

As good of a track record as ProKick had, Wishnowsky was still worried that he wouldn’t get picked up by an NCAA school right away. Still, he worked hard and soon enough, scouts began inquiring about the 6’4″, 220-pound Aussie.

Wishnowsky eventually made his way from sunny Perth to equally sunny Santa Barbara, California. He got a scholarship punting for the Santa Barbara City College Vaqueros in the fall of 2014, averaging a solid 39.8 yards per punt that year.

Eventually, Wishnowsky got the attention of coach Kyle Whittingham of the University of Utah. The Utes offered Wishnowsky a scholarship and he enrolled in January 2016 with big shoes to fill: he had to replace two-time All-American and two-time Ray Guy Award winner Tom Hackett, a fellow ProKick alum.

However, Wishnowsky brought a different set of skills to the table than Hackett did – both on and off the field.

Hackett stands only 5’10”, 180 pounds and was highly-regarded for his quick release and kicking accuracy. However, he will admit that Wishnowsky has the superior leg and athleticism:

Mitch has an uncanny ability to hit the ball much harder than most punters. His strengths do not lie with his accuracy; instead, he chooses the most direct route, high and long. I concede defeat when asked who is the stronger and more powerful punter….we have very similar, and yet very different, punting styles.

Off the field, Hackett became a media darling with his dry Aussie one-liners and tongue-in-cheek demeanor. Wishnowsky, comparatively, is a man of few words.


Upon accepting the 2016 Ray Guy Award for his efforts, Wishnowsky was asked about the amazing track record that Aussies have as college football punters. He simply replied,  “You can roll out, and you can hold onto it for longer. It is changing the game of college football.”

Indeed it is. Utah made history with Wishnowsky, becoming the first school ever to have multiple Ray Guy winners. That makes it four in a row for ProKick too — Hackett won the award twice and Memphis’s Tom Hornsey won it in 2013. And as if that wasn’t enough, Wishnowsky beat out two other ProKick alums to win it all in 2016 – Cameron Johnston of Ohio State and Michael Dickson from Texas. Wishnowsky expressed congrats to his fellow countrymen and runners-up in the 2016 Ray Guy competition.

“No hard feelings. We’re all good mates,” he said with a grin.

Wishnowsky finished the season ranked second in the nation in punting, averaging 48 yards per kick, and won national punter of the week honors three times this past season. He was also named a unanimous first-team All-American.

The scary part? Wishnowsky has two years of eligibility left.

“I suppose I’ll just try to better myself next year,” Wishnowsky says. “I feel like I can get strong, maybe just show a bit more versatility. I wouldn’t mind getting a fake punt on the way at some stage.”

Hey, why not?